Journal of Pharmaceutical Care 2018-12-15T08:54:15+0330 Kheirollah Gholami Open Journal Systems Depression still Requires Novel Psychiatric Medication 2018-12-15T08:54:15+0330 Maryam Kowsar Mahmoud Mirzaei <p>Depression is a mood disorder which leads to sadness, emptiness, loss of interest and energy for the patient. Feeling, Thinking and behaving are all influenced by the effects of depression causing a variety of emotional and physical problems in considerable numbers of people all around the world. Herein, brain chemistry plays an important role in determination and also treatment of depression for individuals. During the last decade, so many researchers have dedicated their efforts to detect the most effective potent natural products with antidepressant activities, which reveal the importance of herbal natural products to be considered as psychoactive drugs.</p> 2018-12-12T15:23:51+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparison Effect of Intravenous Ketamine with Sufentanil for Pain Relief during Painful Procedures in Children with Leukemia 2018-12-12T16:28:27+0330 Hamidreza Shetabi Amir Shafa Mohammad Golparvar Javad Mohammadi nasab <p>Background: Children with leukemia would go through different diagnostic and<br>therapeutic procedures during their process of their disease, including lumbar puncture<br>and bone marrow aspiration; these procedures are usually associated with pain and<br>stress. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two combinations of<br>Propofol-Ketamine and Propofol-Sufentanil on sedation and analgesia during painful<br>procedures in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.<br>Methods: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 70 children with acute<br>lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing painful procedures were randomly allocated into<br>two parallel groups and took Intravenous Ketamine (1 mg/kg/dose) or Sufentanil (0.5<br>mcg/kg/dose). Both groups received Intravenous propofol (1.2mg/kg). Hemodynamic<br>variables and analgesic effect were compared between groups.<br>Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the<br>changes in vital signs at the time before, during and after the procedure. But, the<br>incidence of patient’s movements and the need for repeated propofol boluses was<br>significantly lower in the Ketamine group compared to the Sufentanil group (P: 0.008).<br>Conclusion: Ketamine is a good choice for conducting painful procedures on children<br>with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ketamine might be a good option for pain relief<br>during painful procedures such as intrathecal injection, bone marrow aspiration.<br>Ketamine could also be more effective in controlling the movements and decreasing the<br>need for repeating the drug dosage compared to the Sufentanil.</p> 2018-12-12T15:27:33+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Drug Utilization Evaluation of Carbapenems in a Teaching Hospital in Tabriz-Iran 2018-12-12T16:28:28+0330 Taher Entezari-Maleki Nooshin Ebrahimi Zhinous Bayatmakoo Haleh Rezaee <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Drug utilization evaluation(DUE) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the marketing, distribution, prescription,and use of drugs in society, with special emphasis on the resulting medical, social, and economic consequences.</p> <p>Carbapenems are beta-lactam antibiotics with broad-spectrum activity on Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria and have become the antibiotics of last resort for many serious bacterial infections. The irrational use of carbapenems (imipenem or meropenm) has increased the risk of multi-drug resistant pathogens.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of carbapenem utilization within 9 months and measure compliance with references in Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz,Iran.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong></p> <p>During 9 months,100 patients who received carbapenems randomly get selected under the supervision of the attending physician in Imam Reza Hospital affiliated to the Tabriz university of Medical sciences. After coordination with superviser of each ward, the necessary information were extracted and AHFS andUpToDate references were used to assess appropriate indication and accurate dosage of carbapenems.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>The summary of results were as follows:</p> <ul> <li>The most cause of administration was lower respiratory tract infection (29%).</li> <li>Carbapenems were prescribed for 64% of patients as an appropriate indication.</li> <li>Dose of carbapenems was correct in 74% of patients.</li> <li>Duration of carbapenems therapy was correct in 84% of cases.</li> <li>Dose readjustmen was necessary for 28 patients although for 25 of whom it was performed.</li> <li>78% of patients had culture but only 19 patients had positive culture results.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;Despite the global guidelines, carbapenem consumption in health care systems is also incorrect. So, comprehensive programs for rational drug use in all medical centers conducted by a clinical pharmacist seems necessary to be employed.</p> <p>Key woards: DUE, Carbapenems, Antibiotics resistance, clinical pharmacy</p> 2018-12-12T15:32:25+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparing the Drug Prescription Before and After the Implementation of Health System Reform Plan in Southeastern Community Pharmacies of Iran 2018-12-12T16:28:28+0330 Mandana Moradi Hamed Jami Fatemeh Izadpanah <p>In Iran the health system reform plan (HSRP) has been implemented since 2014. we aim the perscriptions in Zabol city befor and after the implementation of this national plan.</p> <p>matherials and methods:2000 prescriptions received to six pharmacies in Zabol city were evaluated. 1000 prescriptions were randomly selected in April 2014 and the pharmacy code, distance from clinic, type of insurance, number of drugs prescribed, total price of drugs, price of the drugs under insurance coverage and not&nbsp;</p> <p>under insurance coverage, and most prescribed drugs were compared with 1000 prescriptions randomly selected from the same pharmacies in April 2015.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 68822 prescriptions before HSRP, 71.8% and after HSR, of 56536 prescriptions, 66.53% were related to pharmacies close to clinic. The mean number of the prescriptions reduced from 260.36±132.16 to 242.88±102.26 and that of prescribed drugs in each prescription reduced from 3.42±1.56 to 3.08±1.38 (both P&lt;0.001), while the price of the drugs did not change (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>HSRP reduced the number of the drugs prescribed, but not the price, although the type of drugs most commonly prescribed varied between the two study phases. HSRP was successful in Zabol city regarding reducing the total number of drugs prescribed.</p> 2018-12-12T15:50:22+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Colistin Utilization Evaluation in a Major Teaching Hospital in Iran 2018-12-12T16:28:28+0330 Nader Rezaie Maryam Farasatinasab Nasim Vaiszadeh Mahin Jamshidi Mitra Ranjbar Zeynab Yasin Behrooz Ghanbari Nashmin Pakdaman <p><strong><em>Objectives</em></strong>: Colistin is an old antibacterial agent which is used in multiple drug resistant (MDR) infections. Due to increased rate of MDR infections, the use of this agent is raised in worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify colistin utilization patterns in a teaching hospital and to demonstrate the importance of the need to reconsider prescribing strategies for colistin administration.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong>: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed between Augusts 2017and December 2017 at Firoozgar hospital affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. All colistin prescriptions for adult patients during the study period were enrolled for appropriateness evaluation according to the Lexi comp acquired by Wolters Kluwer and NHS guideline.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: Among 70 patients who received colistin, pneumonia (70%) was the chief indication of colistin prescription. In 93% of cases, colistin was prescribed according to microbiological laboratory results. In 14% of patients, colistin administration was before providing microbiological laboratory evidence. Seventeen percent of the patients received loading dose of colistin. The indication of colistin therapy was inappropriate in 16% of patients. &nbsp;The initial and end dose, and duration of treatment of colistin were appropriate in 20%, 40%, and 52% of patients, respectively. Among 70 cases, 24 (34%) and 36 (51%) patients required dose adjustment in first and end dose of colistin therapy which only dose correction was performed in 13 (18%) and 15 (21%) cases, respectively.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong>: These findings, along with aforementioned guidelines supports the requirement for physicians’ educational programs, proper strategies for appropriate prescriptions.</p> 2018-12-12T15:53:57+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hemodynamic Differences between Propofol-remifentanil and Isoflurane-remifentanil Anesthesia for Repair of Cleft Palate in Children 2018-12-12T16:28:28+0330 Amir Shafa Mohammadreza Habibzadeh Behnaz Seydmohammadi <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cleft palate repair is associated with hemorrhage and hemodynamic changes in children. This study aimed to compare hemodynamic changes during cleft palate repair in patients anesthetized with isoflurane-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this randomized, double blind study, 100 cleft palate repair candidates who aged under three years were allocated to two groups of 50 to receive either isoflurane-remifentanil or propofol-remifentanil for maintaining anesthesia.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial pressure were significantly lower in the propofol-remifentanil group (P &lt; 0.001). The mean extubation time (P &lt; 0.001), time to first analgesic administration (P = 0.04), and recovery time (P &lt; 0.001) were significantly longer in the isoflurane-remifentanil group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Propofol-remifentanil-based anesthesia caused more stable hemodynamic state in patients undergoing cleft palate repair. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the mean arterial pressure, were lower with propofol-remifentanil administration. Therefore, this combination can lower the risk of intraoperative hemorrhage.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-12T16:01:02+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Polypharmacy and the Use of Beers Criteria in Iranian Geriatric Patients: A Review of Published Literature 2018-12-12T16:28:29+0330 Atena Ezati Leila Kouti Kaveh Eslami Saeid Saeidimehr Marjan Khanifar <p><strong>Background: </strong>The senior population in Iran is growing, and polypharmacy is common among them. Certain drugs are considered inappropriate in eldelrly due to age related changes and awareness of clinicians in this area is crucial. The Beers criteria is the most evidence based reference for proper drug selection in geriatric patients.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study reviews the scholarly articles published in English or Farsi that had studied potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) according to beers criteria and polypharmacy in the Iranian geriatric population.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> By searching Pubmed, Scopus and Google scholar databases from 1989-2016, all studies in Farsi or English with key terms polypharmacy, drug-drug interactions, Beers, medication, drug, prescribing, older adult, geriatric, elderly, aging, pharmacotherapy, persian and Iran were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>11 studies were found: 5 studies on polypharmacy, 3 studies on polypharmacy and PIMs, one study on PIMs, one study on drug drug interactions and PIMs, and only one study on polypharmacy, PIMs and drug-drug interactions. The majority of these studies were published in Farsi (8 articles). The oldest found article was conducted in 2005 and the most recent published study was in 2016.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Studies in aging population in Iran are very few. This growing patient group with the highest number of drug consumption seems to be under-researched in Iran.</p> 2018-12-12T16:03:45+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: A Case Report 2018-12-12T16:28:29+0330 Wei Chern Ang Malathi Sriraman <p>Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a granulomatous disorder linked with systemic necrotizing vasculitis with varied initial manifestations. We describe a case of a 49-year-old Malay female patient who gradually developed more symptoms of GPA over the past 14 years. This case emphasizes early detection and optimal treatment to minimize any further complications of GPA.</p> 2018-12-12T16:05:57+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement##