Journal of Pharmaceutical Care 2019-08-31T21:23:31+0430 Kheirollah Gholami Open Journal Systems Pharm D Program Accreditation, the Most Important Step towards Promotion of Pharmacy Education 2019-08-31T21:23:29+0430 Kaveh Eslami <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In recent years, the number of pharmacy schools in Iran has increased from 9 in 1999 to more than 24. Many pharmacy students are being educated to become professional pharmacists. Monitoring the quality of education provided to the students and ensuring the continuance of</p> <p>this quality is critical.</p> <p>Given the important role of the pharmacist in the health care system, accreditation is a great way to assess this higher education and to monitor its performance. Accreditation is a process</p> 2019-08-31T20:55:09+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inhaler Refill Adherence among Patients with COPD/Asthma at a General Hospital in Northern Peninsular Malaysia 2019-08-31T21:23:30+0430 Wei Chern Ang Mahirah Mahdzan Rashila Mohmad <p><strong>Background:</strong> Most adherence studies are based on self-report measures. There are limited studies on medication refill adherence (MRA) conducted in Malaysia, especially on bronchial asthma (BA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study aimed to investigate the MRA for inhalers with fixed dosing indicated for BA or COPD, prescribed from paediatric and medical clinics in Hospital Tuanku Fauziah and the factors that may affect MRA of COPD/BA inhalers.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted on repeat prescriptions (fixed-dose inhalers dispensed as the units of analysis) collected from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2015 from the specialist clinic pharmacy. Descriptive analysis was conducted based on satisfactory MRA which was set as the&nbsp;dispensed refill of inhalers covering 80-120% of the prescribed treatment time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore each variable (diagnosis, gender, ethnicity and age) in relation to MRA: overall satisfactory MRA (≥80% MRA) with undersupply (&lt;80% MRA) as the reference group.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;Out of the repeat prescriptions analysed (<em>n</em>=199), the majorities were COPD (<em>n</em>=118; 64.3%), male (<em>n</em>=122; 61.4%), Malay (<em>n</em>=175; 88.0%), and aged 60-69 years old (<em>n</em>=56; 28.3%). 44.5% of repeat prescriptions (<em>n</em>=57) for COPD showed satisfactory MRA, compared to only 25.4% (<em>n</em>=18) in BA. Repeat prescriptions for fluticasone/salmeterol&nbsp;accuhalers showed the highest satisfactory MRA at 18.1% (<em>n</em>=36). Diagnosis, gender and ethnicity did not significantly influence the overall MRA while age marginally influenced the overall MRA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> More than half of the repeat prescriptions for BA and COPD inhalers showed undersupply and oversupply: patients may not be compliant nor using the inhaler correctly.</p> 2019-08-31T20:57:23+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Vitamin D Deficiency and Oral Mucositis in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Cross-Sectional Observation 2019-08-31T21:23:30+0430 Kosar Raoufinejad Shahrzad Pezeshki Bahram Chahardouli Molouk Hadjibabaie Zahra Jahangard-Rafsanjani Kheirollah Gholami Mehdi Rajabi Mohammad Vaezi <p><strong>Backgrounds:</strong> One of the most frequent complications of high-dose chemotherapy regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is oral mucositis (OM). Vitamin D (VD) has well-known immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate the association of baseline VD levels with OM as well as neutrophil and platelet engraftments in patients with multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma after autologous HSCT.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A sample of 71 patients was included after obtaining informed consent. Serum samples were collected in the morning prior to the administration of conditioning regimen to measure the baseline 25-OH-D. OM was examined daily during hospital stay. The WHO scale was used for scoring the OM. Absolute neutrophil count and platelet count were determined daily from transplantation until engraftment.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Patients aged between 18 to 65 years. Mean length of hospital stay was 15.8±5.7 days. OM was detected in 44/71 (62.0%) of patients. Mean time to the engraftment of neutrophils and platelets were 11.8±4.0 and 17.2±7.3 days, respectively. Mean level of baseline 25-OH-D was 17.5±14.0 ng/ml. VD deficiency (&lt;20 ng/ml) was diagnosed in 51/71 (71.8%) of patients. No association between baseline 25-OH-D levels and the incidence of OM (P=0.69) or OM grade 3-4 (P=0.46) was found. No significant correlations were detected between the baseline 25-OH-D and engraftment time of neutrophils (P=0.46) or platelets (P=0.17).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The prevalence of VD deficiency was high among adult HSCT patients at the time of transplantation. No association was found between low baseline VD with post-HSCT OM and engraftment time.</p> 2019-08-31T20:58:50+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rituximab Utilization Evaluation with Focused on Available Evidence for Off-Labeled Indications 2019-08-31T21:23:30+0430 Sohrab Aghabeigi Maryam Farasatinasab Atefeh Amouzegar Soodeh Ramezaninejad Behrooz Ghanbari Nashmin Pakdaman Mohammad Reza Motamed Simin Almasi Nader Rezaie Somayyeh Nasiripour Forough Sabzghabaei Ali Basi <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To investigate the on-labeled and off-labeled indications of rituximab according to available evidence and the cost in our center.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2016 and August 2017 at a teaching hospital affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Patients’ demographic data and disease, indication for rituximab use, its dosage and treatment regimen and previous and concurrent treatments was assessed. The collected data were compared with the current criteria for the pattern of rituximab use. The last version of Lexicomp® acquired by Wolters Kluwer was used as the reference for on-labeled and off-labeled indications of the prescribed drug and its dosage. Level of evidences for applied indications and cost has also been evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 85 patients received rituximab during the study period. The most frequent reasons for rituximab prescription were: multiple sclerosis (50.58%), systemic sclerosis (10.58%), rheumatoid arthritis (7.05%) and Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (4.70%). Rituximab was used in 8 (9.4%) cases according to on-labeled indications. There was level C evidence for rituximab use in off-labeled indications in 47 (55.29%) cases according to available evidences which accounts for the highest calculated cost.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on our results, rituximab was frequently administrated for off-labeled indications most of which are not supported by established levels of evidence. Strong evidence is necessary for decision making regarding its effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Rituximab; Drug Utilization Evaluation; Multiple Sclerosis</p> 2019-08-31T21:04:55+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Drug Utilization Evaluation of Two Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials: Cefepime and Piperacillin/Tazobactam in a Teaching Hospital in Tabriz, Iran 2019-08-31T21:23:30+0430 Parviz Saleh Hadi Hamishekar Farnaz Naeimzadeh Sara Mikaili Hamid Owaysee Osquee Haleh Rezaee <p><strong>Background:</strong> The inappropriate use of antibiotic leads to microbial resistance, nosocomial infections and increased hospital costs. The broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam play an important role in the empiric therapy of serious infections.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Demographic data, duration of prescription, dose, dosage adjustment in renal impairment and accompanied prescribed antibiotics were extracted from medical files. UpToDate and AHFS drug information 2012 were considered as standards of rational prescribing. Data analysis was performed by SPSS 18 software. <strong>Results:</strong> Drug dosage and indication were appropriate in 16 (23%). The most common antibiotic administered with cefepime was ciprofloxacin (37 cases). In 21 patients, cefepime dosage should have been adjusted according to renal impairment, whereas it has done only in 16 (22.9%) patients. Culture was done in 60 (85.8%) cases. Culture ordered before starting of antibiotics took place in 3(4.2%) patients. In 22(31.4%) patients, the result of culture was negative. Drug dosage and indication were appropriate in 34 (48%). The most common antibiotic administered with tazocin was vancomycin (45 cases). In 9 patients, tazocin dosage should have been adjusted according to renal impairment and it has done. Culture was done in 53 (75.8%) cases. Culture ordered before starting of antibiotics took place in 6(8.57%) patients. In 9(12.8%) patients, the result of culture was negative. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results showed that there was an injudicious use of cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam at Sina hospital, evidenced by the significant number of inappropriate empiric prescriptions and inappropriate drug modifications, based on the results of microbial cultures and antibiograms.</p> 2019-08-31T21:08:22+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Prescriptions Patterns and Drug Use across the Kurdistan Region 2019-08-31T21:23:31+0430 Rawaz Tawfeeq Tarin Tahssen Obied Aram Ommar <p>Errors in drug prescriptions are the most common preventable medication errors encountered in clinical practices worldwide. The aim of this research is to examine the pattern of prescriptions and drug use in the Kurdistan region and to determine whether the drug prescribing was based on rational therapeutic consideration. A cross sectional-observational study was conducted in the Kurdistan region of Iraq over a period of five months. A total of 1000 prescriptions were selected randomly from different pharmacies and data obtained from each prescription. In these prescriptions a total of 2878 medications were prescribed. The percentage of medications including antibiotics, supplement, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other painkillers 51.8%, 44.2%, 31.8%, and 21.8% per encounter respectively. The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.8. Drugs prescribed by generic name were 27% and more than 98 per cent of prescriptions were handwritten. The duration of therapy was mentioned in 56.5% of prescriptions. However, the dose and dosage form of medications were recorded 62% and 87.3% respectively. The percentage of prescriptions signed by the prescriber was 88.1%.</p> 2019-08-31T21:12:05+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutrition and Foods for Skin Health 2019-08-31T21:23:31+0430 Gülsüm Akalın Zeliha Selamoglu <p>This review reports the importance of the natural foods and nutritional status in the maintenance of healthy skin. The weaknesses in nutritional status that convert skin structure and function might also directly affect skin appearance. Thus, it needs to investigation the effects of micronutrients and various natural agents that are important for skin health.</p> 2019-08-31T21:13:48+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Levofloxacin Induced Stomatitis: A Case Report 2019-08-31T21:23:31+0430 Atousa Hakamifard Sarah Mousavi Tahereh Gholipour-Shahraki Fatemeh Mohaghegh <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> fluoroquinolones have many adverse effects include the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, phototoxicity, and dermal toxicity. Levofloxacin has favorable adverse reaction profiles compared to other fluoroquinolones. Among the reported dermal toxicity, there are few reports of TEN in association with levofloxacin usage. However, there is no published study on levofloxacin induced stomatitis. Stomatitis is characterized by pain, inflammation, and ulceration in the oral cavity. It can affect patient ability to eat, talk or daily workout. Hence, caution is advised while administering drugs with this potential adverse effect.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> A 36-year-old man was referred to the hospital for ‘painful oral swelling and ulceration’. Before the admission due to a fever and productive cough, 750 mg levofloxacin were prescribed for him. After 2 days of consumption, the patient experiences painful ulcerative and erythema lesions in the oral cavity that consistent with stomatitis. Upon hospitalization, the patient only had 38 degrees and all laboratory value was in normal ranges except ESR, that was 89. Due to the possibility of a drug reaction, levofloxacin was discontinued and no other antibiotic was used. Oral lesions were managed with mouthwash and after 5 to 7 days, lesions recovered.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient who developed stomatitis adverse drug reaction after two doses of levofloxacin and recovered just with topical therapy and without any systemic treatment. Further fluoroquinolone use should be avoided in such patients.</p> 2019-08-31T21:16:35+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ventricular Septal Rupture Secondary to Myocardial Infarction Post Fibrinolytic Therapy: A Case Report 2019-08-31T21:23:31+0430 Ankitha peetha Nahida Farheen Shaik Spandana Ayela <p>Myocardial infarction can be complicated by Ventricular septal rupture which is a rare fatal grim mechanical complication of MI which is a surgical emergency due to its incredibly high mortality rate. We depict a case of Anterior wall MI which was complicated by Ventricular septal rupture post fibrinolytic therapy.</p> 2019-08-31T21:21:32+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement##