Propolis attenuates oxidative injury in brain and lung of nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats
Background: The blocking of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity may reason vasoconstriction with formation of reactive oxygen species. Propolis has biological and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant effects of propolis which natural product on biochemical parameters in brain and lung tissues of acute nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME).
Methods: Rats have been received L-NAME (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), NOS inhibitor for 15 days to produce hypertension and propolis (200mg/kg, by gavage) the lastest 5 of 15 days.
Results: There were the increase (P<0.001) in the malondialdehyde levels in the L-NAME treatment groups when compared to control rats, but the decrease (P<0.001) in the catalase activities in both brain and lung tissues. There were statistically changes (P<0.001) in these parameters of L-NAME+propolis treated rats as compared with L-NAME-treated group.
Conclusion: The application of L-NAME to the Wistar rats resulted in well developed oxidative stress. Also, propolis may influence endothelial NO production. Identification of such compounds and characterisation of their cellular actions may increase our knowledge of the regulation of endothelial NO production and could provide valuable clues for the prevention or treatment of hypertensive diseases and oxidative stress.
Kumai T, Asoh K, Tateishi T, Tanaka M, Watanabe M, Kobayashi S. Effects of nitric oxide synthase ınhibitor on tyrosine hydroxylase mrna in the adrenal medulla of spontaneously hypertensive and wistar kyoto rats. Nitric Oxide 1999; 3(4): 321-6.
Guix FX, Uribesalgo I, Coma M, Munoz FJ. The physiology and pathophysiology of nitric oxide in the brain. Prog Neurobiol 2005; 76: 126-52.
Kwasniewski FH, Landgraf RG, Bakhle YS, Jancar S. Bronchoconstriction and endogenous nitric oxide in isolated lungs of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2004; 488: 181-9.
Sahna E, Deniz E, Bay-Karabulut A, Burma O. Melatonin protects myocardium from ıschemia-reperfusion ınjury in hypertensive rats: role of myeloperoxidase activity. Clin Exp Hypertens 2008; 30: 673-81.
Harrison DG, Gongora MC, Guzik TJ, Widder J. Oxidative stress and hypertension. J Am Soc Hypertens 2007; 1(1): 30-44.
Thakali K, Davenport L, Fink GD, Watts WS. Pleiotropic effects of hydrogen peroxide in arteries and veins from normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension 2006; 47: 482-7.
Sforcin JM, Bankova V. Propolis: Is there a potential for the development of new drugs?. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 133: 253-60.
Prytzyk E, Dantas AP, Salomão K, et al. Flavonoids and trypanocidal activity of Bulgarian propolis. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 88: 189-193.
Sforcin JM, Novelli ELB, Funari RC. Seasonal effect of Brazilian propolis on seric biochemical variables. J Venom Anim Toxins 2002; 8(2): 244-54.
National Research Counci. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1996.
Mani F, Damasceno HCR, Novelli ELB, Martins EAM, Sforcin JM. Propolis: Effect of different concentrations, extracts and intake period on seric biochemical variables. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 105: 95-8.
Gogebakan A, Talas ZS, Ozdemir I, Sahna E. Role of propolis on tyrosine hydroxylase activity and blood pressure in nitric oxide synthase-inhibited hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Hypertens 2012; 34 (6): 424-8.
Lowry O, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurements with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951; 193: 265-275.
Aebi H. Catalase in vitro. Method Enzymol 1984; 105: 121-6.
Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979; 95: 351-8.
Sousa T, Pinho D, Morato M, et al. Role of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in hypertension induced by an antagonist of adenosine receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 2008; 588: 267-76.
Sozmen B, Kazaz C, Taskiran D, Tuzun S, Sozmen EY. Effect of n-dicyclopropylmethyl-amino-2-oxazoline (s-3341) on antioxidant status and nitric-oxide in hypertensive patients. Curr Med Res Opin 1998; 14(2): 89-96.
Meera KS. Oxidative imbalance in smokers with and without hypertension. Biomed Res-India 2011; 22 (3): 267-72.
Deniz E, Colakoglu N, Sari A, et al. Melatonin attenuates renal ischemia– reperfusion injury in nitric oxide synthase inhibited rats. Acta Histochem 2006; 108: 303-9.
Fresquet F, Pourageaud F, Leblais V, et al. Role of reactive oxygen species and gp91phox in endothelial dysfunction of pulmonary arteries induced by chronic hypoxia. Brit J Pharmacol 2006; 148: 714-23.
Alyane M, Kebsa LB, Boussenane HN, Rouibah H, Lahouel M. Cardioprotective effects and mechanism of action of polphenols extracted from propolis against doxorubicin toxicity. Pak J Pharm Sci 2008; 21: 201-9.
Saravanakumar M, Raja B. Veratric acid, a phenolic acid attenuates blood pressure and oxidative stress in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2011; 671: 87-94.
Isla MI, Nieva Moreno MI, Sampietro AR, Vattuone VA. Antioxidant activity of argentine propolis extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 76: 165-170.
Gulcin I, Bursal E, Sehitoglu MH, Bilsel M, Goren AC. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extract of propolis from Erzurum, Turkey Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48: 2227–38.
Burdock GA. Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis). Food Chem Toxicol 1998; 36: 347–63.
Rice-Evans C. Flavonoid antioxidants. Curr Med Chem 2001; 8: 797–807.
Banskota AH, Tezuka Y, Kadota S. Recent progress in pharmacological research of propolis. Phytother Res 2001; 15: 561–71.
Kumazawa S, Hamasaka T, Nakayama T. Antioxidant activity of propolis of various geographic origins. Food Chem 2004; 84: 329–39.
Russo A, Longo R, Vanella A. Antioxidant activity of propolis: role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and galangin. Fitoterapie 2002; 73: 21–29.
Havsteen BH. The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids. Pharmacol Ther 2002; 96(2-3): 67– 202.
Sforcin JM. Propolis and the immune system: a review. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 113: 1–14.
Maruyama H, Sumitou Y, Sakamoto T, Araki Y, Hara H. Antihypertensive effects of flavonoids isolated from brazilian green propolis in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2009; 32(7): 1244-50.
Harborne JB, Williams CA. Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry 2000; 55: 481-504.