Methamphetamine Manufactured from Pseudoephedrine; Both as DoubleEdged Swords
Methamphetamine, or meth, is a potent stimulant that is prescribed for psychiatric conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and weight issues.
Contrariwise, this agent is more used recreationally for energy boosting and feelings of strength it creates. Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is the key ingredient used to produce methamphetamine. Pseudoephedrine has one less hydroxyl group compared to another commonly used sympathoimetic in cold and allergy products which results in a more lipid soluble molecule and thus more CNS availability. (1)
Methamphetamine has many other names such as “Meth”, “Crystal”, “Speed”, “Crank”, “Chalk”, “Wash”, “Trash”, “Pookie” (2), “Shisheh” or “Glass” in Iran, is considered the second most abused illicit drug. Considerable struggles have been made to lower the supply and demand for recreational drugs. Methamphetamine is of specific importance because of its popularity and crimes outcomes. (3)
2-American Addiction Center. Slang and Nicknames for Meth (2019), available at https://americanaddictioncenters.org/meth-treatment/slang-names
3-U.S. Department of Justice DEA, Diversion Control Division. National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) 2015 Annual Report. 2016.
4-Chomchai C, Chomchai S. Global patterns of methamphetamine use. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2015;28:269-74.
5-Panenka WJ, Procyshyn RM, Lecomte T, et al. Methamphetamine use: A comprehensive review of molecular, preclinical and clinical findings. Drug Alcohol Depend 2013;129:167-79.
6-Dobkin, Carlos, and Nancy Nicosia. “The War on Drugs: Methamphetamine, Public Health, and Crime.” The American economic review vol. 99,1 (2009): 324-349. doi:10.1257/aer.99.1.324
7-National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction. NIDA Research Report #PH D756. (2002). available at http://www.drugabuse.gov/ResearchReports/Methamph/Methamph.html.
8-Lal R. Legal requirements for the sale and purchase of drug products containing pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. available at https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information-drug-class
9-CHPA; Transcript: Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act (2017) available at https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information
10-Whelan D. Losing The War On Meth And Sudafed At The Same Time. (2012). available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidwhelan
11-National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction. NIDA Research Report #PH D756. (2002). available at http://www.drugabuse.gov/ResearchReports/Methamph/Methamph.html.
12-Lal R. Legal requirements for the sale and purchase of drug products containing pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. available at https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information-drug-class
14- Noroozi A, Malekinejad M, Rahimi-Movaghar A. Factors Influencing Transition to Shisheh (Methamphetamine) among Young People Who Use Drugs in Tehran: A Qualitative Study. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2018 Jul-Aug;50(3):214-223.
15- National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2019). available at https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/methamphetamine