Original Article

Effect of Insecurity on the Provision of Pharmaceutical Care in Akwa Ibom State: The Community Pharmacist’s Perspective


Background :Pharmaceutical care is an important aspect of healthcare provided by pharmacists which is associated with good clinical outcomes and improved quality of life. Robberies and insecurities is a common occurrence in community pharmacies and when left unchecked can have economic, financial consequences and also influence the provision of care. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived effect of insecurity on the provision of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.
Methods: This study was a cross sectional survey among community pharmacists in community pharmacies in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. All community pharmacies in Uyo metropolis were visited and an informed consent was obtained from the pharmacists before the commencement of the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used in the collection of data in this study. The questionnaire evaluated the perceived effect of the current robberies on pharmaceutical care where the evaluation statements were structured in Likert scale format. 
Results: A total of 76 pharmacists consented to participate in the study where 56 (73.7%) were males and 20 females. The mean age of the study participants was 28.25 + 1.543 years and 82.9% of the participants had 1-10 years community pharmacy experience. Majority of the pharmacists agreed that insecurity has hindered history taking (52%), blood pressure checks (84.2%), patient counseling (80.2%) and decreased sales (52.6%).
Conclusion:There is a negative perceived effect of recent insecurities on the provision of pharmaceutical care services and sales. This aspect should be explored in further studies and research.

1. Ward K, Sanders D, Leng H, Pollock AM. Assessing equity in the geographical distribution of community pharmacies in South Africa in preparation for a national health insurance scheme. Bull World Health Organ 2014;92(7):482-9.
2. Erku DA, Mersha AG. Involvement of community pharmacists in public health priorities: A multi-center descriptive survey in Ethiopia. PLoS One 2017 13;12(7):e0180943.
3. Silva BB, Fegadolli C. Implementation of pharmaceutical care for older adults in the brazilian public health system: a case study and realistic evaluation. BMC Health Serv Res 2020;20(1):37.
4. Christensen DB, Farris KB. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in the US. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40(7-8):1400-6.
5. La Vigne N, Wartell J. Robbery of pharmacies. Robbery of Pharmacies. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police, Problem-Specific Guide No. 73. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; 2015.
6. Mann ED. Crime Prevention in Practice: An Analysis of Pharmacy Robberies [dissertation on the Internet for a master's degree]. Burnaby, British Columbia: Simon Fraser University; 2017 [cited 2020 Jul 2]. Available from: https://summit.sfu.ca/item/17510.
7. Lewis G. The Extent of Crimes in Pharmacies across the UK. Chemist and Druggist: Community pharmacy news, analysis and CPD [Internet]. 2017 Aug 15 [cited 2020 Jul 2]. Available from: https://www.chemistanddruggist.co.uk/feature/revealed-extent-crime-in-pharmacies.
8. Oshita OO, Alumona IM, Onuoha FC, editors. Internal Security Management in Nigeria Perspectives, Challenges and Lessons: Perspectives, Challenges and Lessons. Singapore: Springer; 2019.
9. Boniface O. Robbers raid Pharmacy kill two. News Express [Internet]. 2012 July 04 [cited 2020 Jul 2]. Available from:https://www.newsexpressngr.com/news/79-Robbers-raid-pharmacy-kill-two?pr=97090&lang=en.
10. Şencan N, Silkü SN, Yetkin Z, Bayraktar E, Segal H. Thefts: The Knowledge and Attitudes of Pharmacists Towards Financial Losses in Pharmacies. Journal of Literature Pharmacy Sciences 2014;3(2):47-54.
11. Ezemadu J. Robbers raid Badagary suburb, kill pharmacist. PM News [Internet]. 2014 Apr 17 [cited 2020 Jul 2]. Available from: https://www.pmnewsnigeria.com/2014/04/17/robbers-raid-badagry-suburb-kill-pharmacist/.
12. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Uyo: Nigeria. Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica [Internet]; 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 2]. Available from: URL: https://www.britannica.com/place/Uyo.
13. World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA 2013;310(20):2191-4.
14. Zabyelina TG. Pharmacy and Crime. The Encyclopedia of Crime & Punishment 2015; 10.1002/9781118519639.wbecpx210.
15. Figge H. Pharmacy security: know your options. US Pharmacist 2015;40(8):44-46.
16. Fiona W, Alison B. Trends in improved security measures reducing armed robberies in pharmacies: final report. Gosford, New South Walse: Workcover NSW: 2008 [cited 2020 Jul 2]. Availablefrom: https://webarchive.nla.gov.au/tep/119541.
17. Taylor N. Robbery against service stations and pharmacies: recent trends. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice No. 223 [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology; 2002. [updated 2020 Jun 22; cited 2020 Jul 2]. Available from:URL: https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi223.
18. Sherman LW, Denise CG, Doris LM, Eck J, Reuter P, Bushway SD. Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising, Research in Brief. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice; 1998.
19. Nina P, Stuart DM, Hannah C, Michael D Changes in the prevalence and nature of violent crime by youth in Victoria, Australia. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 2015;22(2):213-223.
20. Fuller G. Where and when: A profile of armed robbery by location. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice No. 479 [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology; 2014. [updated 2020 Aug 03; cited 2020 Jul 2]. Available from: https://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/tandi479.
21. Sreelalitha N, Vigneshwaran E, Narayana G, Padmanabha R, Ramakesava R. Review of pharmaceutical care services provided by the pharmacists. International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2012;3(4):78-79.
22. Clemons MD, Casper KA, Seifert JL, Fahey HP, Li J. Health care insecurity in the underserved: Effect of a charitable pharmacy model. J Am Pharm Assoc 2019;59(4):S19–24.
IssueVol 8, No 4 (Autumn 2020) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/jpc.v8i4.5241
Pharmaceutical Services; Pharmacists; Akwa Ibom State; Nigeria; Security Measures

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Ndem E, Orok E, Bassey F. Effect of Insecurity on the Provision of Pharmaceutical Care in Akwa Ibom State: The Community Pharmacist’s Perspective. J Pharm Care. 2020;8(4):180-185.