A Review of Studies on the Use of New Non-Gabapentinoid Anticonvulsants and Muscle Relaxants in the Control of Acute Postoperative Pain
Postoperative pain management in any type of surgery is an important issue for patients. The pain relief contributes to decreased hospital costs, shorter hospital stay, and elevated patient consent. Correspondingly, in this review article we assessed the postoperative pain management efficacy of new non-gabapentinoid anticonvulsants and muscle relaxant drugs in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The scientific databases, including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched using relevant keywords: surgery, postoperative pain, analgesia, non-gabapentinoid anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants. New anticonvulsants reduce postoperative pain, length of stay at postoperative anesthesia care unit, and analgesic requirement after surgeries. Their mechanisms include the inhibition of glutamate release, blocking the N-type calcium channels of afferent neurons, inhibition of supraspinal 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor, and prevention of cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated collapsin response mediator protein 2 phosphorylation. Also, muscle relaxants show the same effects by downregulation the Cacna1a, Cacna1b, and Runt-related transcription factor 1 genes of dorsal root ganglia, inhibition the release of glutamate, aspartate or substance P from the terminals of primary afferent C and Aδ fibers, expression of Neurokinin 1 receptor in the spinal dorsal horn, agonistic effect on α2-adrenoceptor, and stimulation of acetylcholine release in the spinal cord. With respect to the concerns regarding opioid abuse, muscle relaxants and non-gabapentinoid anticonvulsant drugs can be regarded as a safe option for postoperative pain control.
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|Issue||Vol 9, No 2 (Spring 2021)|
|Surgery; Postoperative Pain; Analgesia; Anticonvulsants; Muscle Relaxants|
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