A Review on Different Virtual Learning Methods in Pharmacy Education
Virtual learning is a type of electronic learning system based on the web. It models traditional in- person learning by providing virtual access to classes, tests, homework, feedbacks and etc. Students and teachers can interact through chat rooms or other virtual environments. Web 2.0 services are usually used for this method. Internet audio-visual tools, multimedia systems, a disco CD-ROMs, videotapes, animation, video conferencing, and interactive phones can all be used to deliver data to the students. E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It is time saving with lower costs compared to traditional methods. It can be self-paced, it is suitable for distance learning and it is flexible. It is a great learning style for continuing education and students can independently solve their problems but it has its disadvantages too. Thereby, blended learning (combination of conventional and virtual education) is being used worldwide and has improved knowledge, skills and confidence of pharmacy students.The aim of this study is to review, discuss and introduce different methods of virtual learning for pharmacy students.Google scholar, Pubmed and Scupus databases were searched for topics related to virtual, electronic and blended learning and different styles like computer simulators, virtual practice environment technology, virtual mentor, virtual patient, 3D simulators, etc. are discussed in this article.Our review on different studies on these areas shows that the students are highly satisfied withvirtual and blended types of learning.
Jilardi Damavandi A, Mahyuddin R, Elias H, Daud SM, Shabani J. Academic Achievement of Students with Different Learning Styles. International Journal of Psychological Studies 2011;3(2):186-192.
Ruiz JG, Mintzer MJ, Leipzig RM. The impact of e-learning in medical education. Academic Medicine 2006;81(3):207-12.
Leung WC, Diwakar V. Learning in practiceCompetency based medical training: reviewCommentary: The baby is thrown out with the bathwater. BMJ 2002;325(7366):693-6.
Zandi S, Abedi D, Changiz T, Yousefi A, Yamani N, Kabiri P. Electronic learning as a new educational technology and its integration in medical education curricula. Iranian Journal of Medical Education 2004;4(1):61-70.
Thurmond VA. Defining interaction and strategies to enhance interactions in Web-based courses. Nurse Educator 2003;28(5):237-41.
Smits P, de Graaf L, Radon K, et al. Case-based e-learning to improve the attitude of medical students towards occupational health, a randomised controlled trial. Occup Environ Med 2012;69(4):280-3.
Lin CF, Lu MS, Chung CC, Yang CM. A comparison of problem-based learning and conventional teaching in nursing ethics education. Nurs Ethics 2010;17(3):373-82.
Khan BH. Web-Based Instruction (WBI): An Introduction. Educational Media International 1998;35(2):63-71.
Thurmond V, Wambach K. Understanding interactions in distance education: A review of the literature. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning 2004;1(1(:9-26.
Alavi S. Sh. . Rapid e-learning in medical education . Bimonthly Educ Strateg Med Sci 2009; 2 (1) :13-14.
Buckley KM. Evaluation of classroom-based, web-enhanced, and web- based distance learning nutrition courses for undergraduate nursing. J Nurs Educ 2003;42(8):367-70.
Regan JARC, Youn EJ. Past, present, and future trends in teaching clinical skills through web-based learning environments. Journal of Social Work Education 2008;44(2):95-116.
Della Corte F, La Mura F, Petrino R. E-learning as educational tool in emergency and disaster medicine teaching. Minerva Anestesiol 2005;71(5):181-95.
Khazaei S, Rashedi E, Barati E. Blended Learning Approaches in Medical Science: A Review Article. Pajouhan Scientific Journal 2012;11(1):11-6.
Hugenholtz NI, de Croon EM, Smits PB, van Dijk FJ, Nieuwenhuijsen K. Effectiveness of e-learning in continuing medical education for occupational physicians. Occup Med 2008;58(5):370-2.
Rowe M, Frantz J, Bozalek V. The role of blended learning in the clinical education of healthcare students: a systematic review. Med Teach 2012;34(4):e216-e21.
Sun PC, Tsai RJ, Finger G, Chen YY, Yeh D. What drives a successful e-Learning? An empirical investigation of the critical factors influencing learner satisfaction. Computers & Education 2008;50(4):1183-202.
Hosseininasab D, Abdullahzadeh F, Feizullahzadeh H. The effect of computer assisted instruction and demonstration on learning vital signs measurement in nursing students. Iranian Journal of Medical Education 2007;7(1):23-30.
Bahadorani M, Yamani N. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and computer skills of the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in regard to the application of computer andinformation technology. Iranian Journal of Medical Education 2002;2(1):11-8.
Huang G, Reynolds R, Candler C. Virtual patient simulation at US and Canadian medical schools. Academic Medicine 2007;82(5):446-51.
Vollmar HC, Butzlaff ME, Lefering R, Rieger MA. Knowledge translation on dementia: a cluster randomized trial to compare a blended learning approach with a “classical” advanced training in GP quality circles. BMC Health Serv Res 2007;7(1):92.
McKimm J, Jollie C, Cantillon P. ABC of learning and teaching: Web based learning. BMJ 2003;326(7394):870.
Howland JL, Moore JL. Student perceptions as distance learners in Internet- based courses. Distance Education 2002;23(2):183-95.
Kühnapfel U, Kuhn C, Hubner M, Krumm HG, Maass H, Neisius B. The Karlsruhe endoscopic surgery trainer as an example for virtual reality in medical education. Minim Invasive Ther Allied 1997;6(2):122-5.
Ezeala CC, Ram AA, Vulakouvaki N. Learning gain of pharmacy students after introducing guided inquiry learning with computer simulation in a pharmacology class in Fiji. J Educ Eval Health Prof 2013;10:9.
Sancho P, Corral R, Rivas T, et al. A blended learning experience for teaching microbiology. Am J Pharm Educ 2006;70(5):120.
Stevens A, Hernandez J, Johnsen K, et al. The use of virtual patients to teach medical students history taking and communication skills. Am J Surg 2006;191(6):806-11.
Richardson A, Bracegirdle L, McLachlan SI, Chapman SR. Use of a Three- Dimensional Virtual Environment to Teach Drug-Receptor Interactions. Am J Pharm Educ 2013;77(1):11.
Turnbull A. Exceptional Lives: Special Education In Today’s Schools (with My Education Lab) Author: Ann Turnbull, H. Ruthe. 2009.
Bierema LL, Hill JR. Virtual mentoring and HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources 2005;7(4):556-68.
Bierema LL, Merriam SB. E-mentoring: Using computer mediated communication to enhance the mentoring process. Innovative Higher Education 2002;26(3):211-27.
Price MA, Chen HH. Promises and challenges: Exploring a collaborative telementoring programme in a preservice teacher education programme. Mentoring and Tutoring 2003;11(1):105-17.
Karcher MJ, Kuperminc GP, Portwood SG, Sipe CL, Taylor AS. Mentoring programs: A framework to inform program development, research, and evaluation. J Community Psychol 2006;34(6):709-25.
O’Neill DK, Harris JB. Bridging the Perspectives and Developmental Needs of All Participants in Curriculum-Based Telementoring Programs. Journal of Research on Technology in Education 2004;37)2):111-28.
Hawkridge D. The human in the machine: Reflections on mentoring at the British Open University. Mentoring and Tutoring 2003;11(1):15-24.
Chiang PP, Chapman S. Do pharmacy staff recommend evidenced-based smoking cessation products? A pseudo patron study. J Clin Pharm Ther 2006;31(3):205-9.
Boulet JR, Ben-David MF, Ziv A, et al. High-stakes examinations: what do we know about measurement?: using standardized patients to assess the interpersonal skills of physicians. Academic Medicine 1998;73(10):S94-6.
Norman GR, Neufeld VR, Walsh A, Woodward CA, McConvey GlA. Measuring physicians’ performances by using simulated patients. J Med Educ 1985;60(12):925-34.
Watson MC, Skelton JR, Bond CM, et al. Simulated patients in the community pharmacy setting–Using simulated patients to measure practice in the community pharmacy setting. Pharma World Sci 2004;26(1):32-7.
Cardello DM. Improve patient satisfaction with a bit of Mystery: Service is what differentiates health care organizations and builds loyal customer bases. Nursing Management 2001;32(6, Part 1 of 2):36-8.
Lehmann CU, Nguyen B, Kim GR, JohnsonKB, Lehmann HP, editors. Restricted natural language processing for case simulation tools. Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium; 1999: American Medical Informatics Association.
Vash JH, Yunesian M, Shariati M, Keshvari A, Harirchi I. Virtual patients inundergraduate surgery education: A randomized controlled study. ANZ J Surg 2007;77(1-2):54-9.
Cavaco AM, Madeira F. European Pharmacy Students’ Experience With Virtual Patient Technology. Am J Pharm Educ 2012;76(6):106.
Orr KK. Integrating virtual patients into a self-care course. Am J Pharm Educ 2007;71(2:(30.
King S, Greidanus E, Carbonaro M, Drummond J, Patterson S. Merging social networking environments and formal learning environments to support and facilitate interprofessional instruction. Med Educ Online 2009;14:5.
Cook DA, Triola MM. Virtual patients: a critical literature review and proposed next steps. Medical Education 2009;43(4):303-11.
Duffy FD, Gordon GH, Whelan G, Cole-Kelly K, Frankel R. Assessing competence in communication and interpersonal skills: the Kalamazoo II report. Academic Medicine 2004;79(6):495-507.
Huwendiek S, Reichert F, Bosse HM, et al. Design principles for virtual patients: a focus group study among students. Medical Education 2009;43(6):580-8.
Salminen H, Zary N, Björklund K, Toth-Pal E, Leanderson C. Virtual Patients in Primary Care: Developing a Reusable Model That Fosters Reflective Practice and Clinical Reasoning. J Med Internet Res 2014;16(1):e3.
Gesundheit N, Brutlag P, Youngblood P, Gunning WT, Zary N, Fors U. The use of virtual patients to assess the clinical skills and reasoning of medical students: initial insights on student acceptance. Med Teach 2009;31(8):739- 42.
May W, Park JH, Lee JP. A ten-year review of the literature on the use of standardized patients in teaching and learning: 1996-2005. Med Teach 2009;31(6):487-92.
Triola M, Feldman H, Kalet A, et al. A randomized trial of teaching clinical skills using virtual and live standardized patients. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21(5):424-9.
Kneebone R, Kidd J, Nestel D, Asvall S, Paraskeva P, Darzi A. An innovative model for teaching and learning clinical procedures. Medical Education 2002;36(7):628-34.
Al-Jasmi F, Moldovan L, Clarke JT. Hunter disease eClinic: interactive, computer-assisted, problem-based approach to independent learning about a rare genetic disease. BMC Med Educ 2010;10(1):72.
Jabbur-Lopes MO, Mesquita AR, Silva LM, Neto ADA, Lyra Jr DP. Virtual patients in pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ 2012;76(5):92.
Hata M, Klotz R, Sylvies R, et al. Medication therapy management services provided by student pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ 2012;76(3):51.
Begley KJ, Coover KL, Tilleman JA, Haddad AMR, Augustine SC. Medication therapy management training using case studies and the MirixaPro platform. Am J Pharm Educ 2011;75(3):49.
Wallman A, Vaudan C, Sporrong SK. Communications Training in Pharmacy Education, 1995-2010. Am J Pharm Educ 2013;77(2):36. 59. Berger K, Eickhoff C, Schulz M. Counselling quality in community pharmacies: implementation of the pseudo customer methodology in Germany. J Clin Pharm Ther 2005;30(1):45-57.
Lyra Jr DP, Rocha CE, Abriata JP, Gimenes FR, Gonzalez MM, Pelá IR. Influence of Pharmaceutical Care intervention and communication skills on the improvement of pharmacotherapeutic outcomes with elderly Brazilian outpatients. Patient Educ Couns 2007;68(2):186-92.
Mackellar A, Ashcroft DM, Bell D, James DH, Marriott J. Identifying criteria for the assessment of pharmacy students’ communication skills with patients. Am J Pharm Educ 2007;71(3):50.
Buchan J, Dal Poz MR. Skill mix in the health care workforce: reviewing the evidence. Bull World Health Organ 2002;80(7):575-80.
Lupu AM, Stewart AL, O’Neil C. Comparison of active-learning strategies for motivational interviewing skills, knowledge, and confidence in first-year pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ 2012;76(2):28.
Bearman M. Is virtual the same as real? Medical students’ experiences of a virtual patient. Academic Medicine 2003;78(5):538-45.
Mesquita AR, Lyra Jr DP, Brito GC, Balisa-Rocha BJ, Aguiar PM, de Almeida Neto AC. Developing communication skills in pharmacy: a systematic review of the use of simulated patient methods. Patient Educ Couns 2010;78(2):143-8.
CurtinLB, Finn LA, Czosnowski QA, Whitman CB, Cawley MJ. Computerbased simulation training to improve learning outcomes in mannequinbased simulation exercises. Am J Pharm Educ 2011;75(6):113.
Kassebaum DG, Eaglen RH. Shortcomings in the evaluation of students’ clinical skills and behaviors in medical school. Academic Medicine 1999;74(7):842-9.
Noel GL, Herbers JE, Caplow MP, Cooper GS, Pangaro LN, Harvey J. How well do internal medicine faculty members evaluate the clinicalskills of residents? Ann Intern Med 1992;117(9):757-65.
Levine MG, Stempak J, Conyers G, Walters JA. Implementing and integrating computer-based activities into a problem-based gross anatomy curriculum. Clin Anat 1999;12(3):191-8.
Qayumi AK, Qayumi T. Computer-Assisted Learning: cyberPatientTM-A Step in the Future of Surgical Education. J Invest Surg 1999;12(6):307-17.
McFalls M. Integration of Problem-based Learning and Innovative Technology Into a Self-Care Course. Am J Pharm Educ 2013;77(6):127.
American Pharmacists Association; National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation.. Medication therapy management in pharmacy practice: core elements of an MTM service model (version 2.0). J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008 May-Jun;48(3):341-53.
Battaglia JN, Kieser MA, Bruskiewitz RH, Pitterle ME, Thorpe JM. An Online Virtual-Patient Program to Teach Pharmacists and Pharmacy Students How to Provide Diabetes-Specific Medication Therapy Management. Am J Pharm Educ 2012;76(7):131
Kuhn C, Powell PH, Sterrett JJ. Elective course on medication therapy management services. Am J Pharm Educ 2010;74(3):40.
Vyas D, Bray BS, Wilson MN. Use of simulation-based teaching methodologies in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Am J Pharm Educ 2013;77(3):53.
Cain J, Fox BI. Web 2.0 and pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ 2009;73(7):120.
Shukry M, Miller JA. Update on dexmedetomidine: use in nonintubated patients requiring sedation for surgical procedures. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2010;6:111-21.
Burton S, Anderson C. Using the Internet to develop an international learning community of pharmacists. Pharmacy World Sci 2002;24(5):172-4.
Shah B, Chewning B. Conceptualizing and measuring pharmacist-patient communication: a review of published studies. Res Social Adm Pharm 2006;2(2):153-85.
James D, Nastasic S, Davies J, Horne R. The design and evaluation of a simulated-patient teaching programme to develop the consultation skills ofundergraduate pharmacy students. Pharmacy world Sci 2001;23(6):212-6.
Austin Z, Gregory P, Tabak D. Simulated patientsvs. standardized patients in objective structured clinical examinations. Am J Pharm Educ 2006;70(5):119.
Hubal RC, Frank GA, Guinn CI, editors. Lessons learned in modeling schizophrenic and depressed responsive virtual humansfor training. Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces; 2003: ACM.
Hobson EH, Haines SL, Van Amburgh JA. Meeting the challenge of public health information delivery in the digital age. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010 1;50(2):214-7.
DiVall MV, Zgarrick DP. Perceptions and Use of iPad Technology by Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members. Am J Pharm Educ 2014 Apr 17;78(3):52.
Wu TT. Using smart mobile devices in social-network-based health education practice: A learning behavior analysis. Nurse Educ Today 2014 Jun;34(6):958-63.
Copyright (c) 2015 Journal of Pharmaceutical Care
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.