Medication Errors in Hospitals: A Study of Factors Affecting Nursing Reporting in a Selected Center Affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

  • HamidReza Mirzaee Associate Professor, Shohadaye Tajrish Education & Treatment Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Davood Mostafaie PhD Candidate in Health Service Management, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Fatemeh Estebsari Assistant Professor,School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Peivand Bastani Assistant Professor, School of Management and Medical Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
  • Rouhallah Kalhor Master of Sciences in Health Service Management, Research Center for Management, Information and Development of Health Systems, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences. Bandar Abbas and Lecturer in Health Service Management Department, School of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
  • SeyyedSaeed Tabatabaee Ph.D Candidate In Health Services Management, Research Center for Health Services Management, Institute for Futures Studies in Health , Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Medication, Error Nursing, Staff Hospital


Background: Medication errors are mentioned as the most common important challenges threatening healthcare system in all countries worldwide. This study is conducted to investigate the most significant factors in refusal to report medication errors among nursing staff.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on all nursing staff of a selected Education& Treatment Center in 2013. Data was collected through a teacher made questionnaire. The questionnaires’ face and content validity was confirmed by experts and for measuring its reliability test-retest was used. Data was analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics. 16th  version of SPSS was also used for related statistics.
Results: The most important factors in refusal to report medication errors respectively are: lack of reporting system in the hospital(3.3%), non-significance of reporting medication errors to hospital authorities and lack of appropriate feedback(3.1%), and lack of a clear definition for a medication error (3%). there was a significant relationship between the most important factors of refusal to report medication errors and work shift (p:0.002), age(p:0.003), gender(p:0.005), work experience(p<0.001) and employment type of nurses(p:0.002).
Conclusion: Factors pertaining to management in hospitals as well as the fear of the consequences of reporting are two broad fields among the factors that make nurses not report their medication errors. In this regard, providing enough education to nurses, boosting the job security for nurses, management support and revising related processes and definitions are some factors that can help decreasing medication errors and increasing their report in case of occurrence.


Dabaghzadeh F, Rashidian R, Torkamandi H, et al. Medication Errors in an Emergency Department in a Large Teaching Hospital in Tehran. IJPR 2013; 12 (4): 937-942

Sanghera IS, Franklin BD, Dhillon S. The attitudes and beliefs of healthcare professionals on the causes and reporting of medication errors in a UK Intensive care unit. Anaesthesia 2007;62(1):53-61.

Aliken L, Clarke S, Sloane D, Sochalski J, Silber J. Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. JAVA 2002;288(16):1987-93.

Chilton LL. Medication Error Prevention for Healthcare Providers. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163:2716-24.

Mrayyan M, Shishani K, Al-Faouri I. Rate, cause and reporting of medication errors in Jordan: nurses “perspectives. Journal of Nursing Management. 2007; 15: 659-70.

Osborne J, Blais k, Hayes J. Nurses’ perceptions: when is it medication error? J Nurs Adm 1999;29(4):33-8.

Jolai S, HajiBabai F. Assessing occurrence and report of medication errors in nursing and its relationship with working conditions in Iran University of Medical Sciences. Medical Ethics Journal 2009, 3(1): 35-42

Mansouri A, Ahmadvand A, Hadjibabaie M, et al. A Review of Medication Errors in Iran: Sources, Underreporting Reasons and Preventive Measures. IJPR 2014, 13 (1): 3-17

Tol A, Pourreza A. Assessing the affecting factors on refusal to report medication errors in nursing staffs of Baharlou hospital. Hospital Journal 2010;9(2):19-24[In Persian].

Evans SM, Berry JG, Smith BJ, et al. Attitude and barriers in incident reporting: a collaborative hospital study. Qual Saf Heath Care 2006; 15(1): 39-43

Saghiri S. Investigating nursing current errors and developing the strategies for decreasing medication errors. Nursing Journal of Islamic Republic of Iran Military 2010;10(2):35-40[In Persian].

Mostafaei D, BaratiMarnani A, MosaviEsfahani H, et al. Medication Errors of Nurses and Factors in Refusal to Report Medication Errors among Nurses in a Teaching Medical Center of Iran in, 2012. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014;16(10): e16600.

Guchelaar HJ, Colen HB, Kalmeijer MD, et al. Medication errors: Hospital pharmacist perspective. Drugs 2005; 65(13): 1735- 46.

Mayo AM, Duncan D. Nurse perceptions of medication error: what we need to know for patient safety. J Nurs Care Qual 2004;19(3):209-217

Luc LA, Ng WIM, Ko KKS. Nursing management of medication errors. Nurs Ethics 2008;15(11):28-39

Marquis, BL. Huston, CJ. Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory andapplication.4th.Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams&Wilkins,2003.

Anoosheh M, Ahmadi F, Faghihzadeh S, et al. Survey of predisposing causes of working errors in nursing cares from Perspective of Nurses and Their Mangers Perspectives. Iranian Journal of Nursing 2007; 20(51): 25-36 [In Persian].

Gillis Hall L, Doran D, Pink GH. Nursing care and patient safety out comes. J Nurs Adm 2004;34(1):41-45

Suresh G, Horbar JD, Plesk P, et al. Voluntary anonymous reporting of medical errors for neonatal intensive care. Pediatrics 2004;113(6):1609-18

Wakefield BJ, Blegen MA, Holman T. Organizational culture, continuous quality improvement and medication administration error reporting. AMJ med Qual 2001; 14(4): 128-135.

How to Cite
Mirzaee H, Mostafaie D, Estebsari F, Bastani P, Kalhor R, Tabatabaee S. Medication Errors in Hospitals: A Study of Factors Affecting Nursing Reporting in a Selected Center Affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. J Pharm Care. 2(3):96-102.
Original Article(s)